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Glossary of Insurance and Insurtech Terms

Explore our extensive glossary covering key insurance and insurtech terms


  • Accident Forgiveness: A feature that prevents insurance rates from increasing after the first at-fault accident, offered to drivers with a good record.
  • Actual Cash Value (ACV): The replacement cost of damaged or stolen property minus depreciation. In auto insurance, it's the repair or replacement cost of the car minus depreciation.
  • Actuary: A professional who analyzes financial risk using mathematics, statistics, and financial theory to help insurance companies determine policy pricing and assess future events.
  • Additional Insured: A person or organization not automatically included as an insured under a policy but for whom the named insured's policy provides protection.
  • Adjuster: An individual employed by an insurance company to evaluate and settle insurance claims by determining the insurer's liability.
  • Admitted Company: An insurance company that is licensed by the state insurance department and complies with all state regulations.
  • Affinity Sales: Selling insurance products through groups such as professional associations, offering members discounts or special conditions.
  • Agent: An individual or company authorized to sell and service insurance policies on behalf of an insurance company. Agents can be "captive" or "independent."
  • Aggregate Limit: The maximum amount an insurer will pay for multiple claims over a policy period, serving as a cap on the insurer's liability.
  • Algorithmic Underwriting: The use of algorithms to analyze data and make decisions about insurance policies, including pricing and risk selection. This technology allows for more accurate and efficient underwriting processes, often leading to quicker policy issuance and potentially lower costs for consumers.
  • Alien Insurer: An insurance company incorporated outside of the United States but licensed to operate within one or more U.S. states.
  • Annual Percentage Rate (APR): The annual rate charged for borrowing or earned through an investment, which represents the actual yearly cost over the term of a loan, including any fees or additional costs associated with the transaction. This term is often used in the context of payment protection insurance.
  • Annual Premium: The amount paid for an insurance policy each year, determined by factors like the insured's history, vehicle type, and coverage selected.
  • Annuity: A financial product that pays out a fixed stream of payments to an individual, primarily used as an income stream for retirees. Annuities are typically used in the context of life insurance and retirement planning.
  • Anti-Theft Device: A tool or system designed to prevent or deter theft. Vehicles with such devices may qualify for lower insurance premiums.
  • APIs (Application Programming Interfaces): In insurtech, APIs allow different software applications to communicate with each other, enabling insurers to integrate various services and data for enhanced customer experiences.
  • Application: The process by which an individual or entity applies for insurance coverage, providing necessary information for risk assessment and premium determination.
  • Apportionment: A method used in insurance to determine how much each insurer will pay in the event that more than one insurance policy applies to a claim. This is commonly applied in situations where multiple policies provide coverage for the same loss.
  • Arbitration: A method of resolving disputes outside courts where parties refer their dispute to arbitrators whose decision they agree to be bound.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI): Utilized in insurtech for claims processing, risk assessment, customer service, and more. AI technologies enable insurers to offer personalized services and improve operational efficiencies.
  • Assessment: The process of determining the value of property, usually for the purpose of calculating how much should be paid for an insurance policy covering that property. This term is also used in determining the amount to be paid out for a claim.
  • Assumption of Risk: A principle that a person may voluntarily accept exposure to a certain risk, thereby relieving another party of liability in the event of an adverse outcome. This concept is often discussed in legal disputes regarding insurance claims.
  • Assured: The individual or entity covered by an insurance policy, protected against specified losses under the terms of the contract.
  • Attachment Point: In the context of excess insurance, the attachment point is the level at which the excess insurance begins to pay out. This is the amount of loss that must be exceeded before the excess policy provides coverage.
  • Authorized Insurer: An insurance company that has been approved by a state's insurance department to sell policies within that state, ensuring that it meets all regulatory requirements and standards for financial stability and ethical practices.
  • Auto Insurance: A policy purchased by vehicle owners to mitigate costs associated with auto accidents, covering most costs in exchange for annual premiums.
  • Automated Underwriting: The use of computer algorithms and software to assess risk and determine the eligibility of applicants for insurance coverage, enhancing decision-making efficiency.
  • Average Annual Mileage: The typical number of miles a vehicle is driven in one year, affecting auto insurance premiums.


  • Bailee Coverage: Protects physical property entrusted to a business by others — relevant in various commercial insurance scenarios, including repair shops or storage facilities.
  • Balance Billing: The practice of billing a patient for the difference between what the patient's insurance decides to pay and the amount charged by the provider. More commonly associated with health insurance but important for understanding insurance billing practices more broadly.
  • Behavioral Analytics: The analysis of data on how individuals behave, especially in the context of web and mobile interactions. In insurance, behavioral analytics can help in understanding risk profiles, predicting future claims, and tailoring insurance products to individual needs.
  • Beneficiary: The person or entity designated to receive the death benefit from a life insurance policy or the proceeds from other types of insurance policies when the insured event occurs. Beneficiaries are often named in life, health, and auto insurance policies in case of the policyholder's death.
  • Big Data: Refers to the vast volumes of data that insurtech companies analyze using advanced analytics to gain insights into customer behavior, risk profiles, and market trends. This allows for more accurate pricing and personalized products.
  • Binder: A temporary insurance contract that provides proof of coverage until a permanent policy is issued. Binders are often used in auto insurance when immediate coverage is required, serving as confirmation that an insurance policy is in effect while the formal policy documents are being prepared.
  • Blockchain: Offers a secure and transparent way to record transactions and manage data. Insurtech companies leverage blockchain for claims processing, fraud prevention, and smart contracts.
  • Bodily Injury Liability (BIL): Coverage that pays for physical injuries to other people caused by the policyholder or other covered drivers in an auto accident. BIL can cover medical expenses, lost wages, and legal defense if the policyholder is sued as a result of the accident.
  • Broker: An independent insurance agent who represents the buyer, rather than the insurance company, and searches the market for the best policy based on the client's needs. Brokers can offer a wide range of products from various insurance companies.
  • Business Interruption Insurance: A type of insurance that covers the loss of income a business suffers after a disaster. The income loss covered may be due to disaster-related closing of the business facility or due to the rebuilding process after a disaster. It's a critical component of risk management for businesses.
  • Business Personal Property Insurance: Coverage for the personal property of a business that is used in the operation of the business. This can include furniture, fixtures, equipment, inventory, and supplies. Often part of commercial property insurance policies.
  • By-Peril Rating: A method of setting insurance premiums based on the specific perils (causes of loss) covered by the policy. This approach allows insurers to more accurately price policies based on the risk of specific events occurring, such as theft, fire, or natural disasters, especially relevant in auto and home insurance.


  • Captive Insurance Company: A type of self-insurance where a parent group or groups create an insurance company to provide coverage for themselves. Captive insurance is a way for businesses to control their risk and manage their costs.
  • Catastrophe Bond (Cat Bond): A high-yield debt instrument that is usually insurance-linked and meant to raise money in case of a catastrophe such as a hurricane or earthquake. It allows insurers to transfer some of the risk to investors, who receive high returns unless a catastrophe triggers a payout.
  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: AI-driven tools used by insurtech companies to enhance customer service and streamline claims processing. Chatbots and virtual assistants can provide 24/7 support, answer policy-related questions, and assist in the initial stages of the claims process.
  • Claim: A request or demand for payment under the terms of an insurance policy. Claims are made after a loss has occurred, for which the insured seeks compensation.
  • Claim Adjuster: An insurance professional who evaluates the damage caused by an incident or accident. The adjuster works to determine the insurance company's liability for the loss.
  • Claim Automation: The use of AI and machine learning technologies to automate the insurance claims process, from initial notification to final settlement. This technology can significantly reduce processing times and improve customer satisfaction.
  • Cloud Computing: The delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet ("the cloud") to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale. Insurtech companies leverage cloud computing for scalability, data storage, and accessing advanced computing capabilities on demand.
  • Coinsurance: A provision in many insurance policies that requires the insured party to bear a portion of the costs of covered services. Typically, coinsurance is expressed as a percentage. For health insurance, it's the percentage of the cost of a service that the insured must pay after the deductible is met.
  • Collaborative Consumption Insurance: Insurance products designed to cover the shared use of assets or services (e.g., ride-sharing, home-sharing). This type of insurance addresses the risks associated with the gig economy and the sharing economy, with insurtech firms often leading the development of tailored policies that provide flexible coverage options for both providers and users.
  • Collision Coverage: Auto insurance coverage that helps pay to repair or replace the policyholder's car if it's damaged in an accident with another vehicle or object, such as a fence or a tree.
  • Combined Ratio: A measure of profitability used by an insurance company to gauge how well it is performing in its daily operations. The combined ratio is calculated by adding the loss ratio (claims paid plus adjustment expenses divided by premiums earned) and the expense ratio (underwriting expenses divided by premiums written). A combined ratio below 100% indicates underwriting profitability, while a ratio above 100% suggests a loss.
  • Commercial Lines: Insurance products designed for businesses, as opposed to personal lines, which are intended for individuals and families. Commercial lines cover a broad range of products including property, liability, workers' compensation, and vehicle insurance.
  • Comprehensive Coverage: Auto insurance coverage that pays for damage to the insured vehicle caused by events other than collisions, such as theft, vandalism, hail, or fire.
  • Contextual Underwriting: An advanced underwriting approach that uses AI and big data analytics to assess the risk of insuring an individual or asset in real-time. This method considers a wide range of contextual information, including behavior patterns, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors, to offer more personalized and accurately priced insurance products.
  • Contingent Liability: Liability that a business or individual might face if a particular event occurs. Contingent liability insurance is often sought by businesses to protect against potential liabilities that arise from indirect or unforeseen business activities.
  • Continuous Underwriting: An underwriting approach that utilizes real-time data to continuously assess and adjust the risk profile of insured individuals or assets. This method leverages IoT devices, wearables, and other data sources to dynamically update policies and premiums based on the insured's current behaviors and circumstances.
  • Conversational AI: AI technology that powers voice or text-based interfaces, enabling humans to interact with computer applications as if they were conversing with a real person. In insurtech, conversational AI is used in chatbots and virtual assistants to enhance customer service, policy inquiries, and claims reporting processes.
  • Coverage Limit: The maximum amount an insurance company will pay for a covered loss. Coverage limits can apply per policy, per term, or per event, depending on the terms of the insurance contract.
  • Credit-Based Insurance Score: A score derived from a person's credit history that insurers use to determine how likely the individual is to file a claim. A higher score may result in lower premiums, while a lower score could lead to higher premiums.
  • Critical Illness Insurance: A type of insurance that provides a lump-sum payment should the policyholder be diagnosed with one of the specific critical illnesses listed within the policy terms, such as cancer, heart attack, or stroke.
  • Cryptocurrency Insurance: A type of insurance product that protects against losses related to the theft or loss of cryptocurrency assets. As cryptocurrencies become more mainstream, insurtech startups are developing innovative solutions to address the unique risks associated with digital currency transactions and storage.
  • Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC): In insurtech and insurance marketing, CAC refers to the cost associated with acquiring a new customer, including advertising, incentives, and sales staff salaries. Understanding CAC is crucial for insurtech companies to ensure sustainable business models.
  • Customer Data Platform (CDP): A unified customer database that consolidates and integrates data from multiple sources to build a complete and coherent profile of each customer. Insurtech companies use CDPs to enhance customer understanding, personalize marketing efforts, and tailor insurance offerings based on detailed customer insights.
  • Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) in Insurance: A metric that represents the total net profit an insurance company expects to earn from a customer over the duration of their relationship. In the context of insurtech, leveraging AI and data analytics to enhance customer engagement and personalize insurance offerings can significantly influence CLV by improving retention rates, cross-selling, and upselling opportunities.
  • Cyber Insurance: A type of insurance designed to cover consumers and businesses against losses incurred from cyber-attacks or data breaches. Cyber insurance policies can cover a variety of expenses associated with data breaches, including notification costs, credit monitoring services, and legal fees.
  • Cyber Risk Assessment: The process of evaluating and identifying potential vulnerabilities that could lead to a cyber attack or data breach. In the context of cyber insurance, insurtech firms utilize advanced AI and analytics to conduct thorough cyber risk assessments for businesses, helping to tailor cyber insurance policies more effectively and prevent cyber threats.
  • Cybersecurity Insurance Metrics: Parameters and ratios developed to assess and manage the risks associated with cyber insurance policies. These metrics involve analyzing data on cyber threats, breach probabilities, potential financial impacts, and claims history to accurately price cyber insurance products and determine appropriate coverage levels.


  • Data Analytics in Insurance: The process of analyzing large sets of data to uncover patterns, trends, and insights that can inform decision-making in the insurance industry. Advanced data analytics can help insurers in underwriting, claims management, customer segmentation, and risk assessment, allowing for more personalized and efficient services.
  • Data Breach Insurance: A type of cyber insurance that protects businesses from the costs associated with data breaches, including notification expenses, credit monitoring services, and legal fees. As businesses increasingly rely on digital technologies, the risk of data breaches grows, making this coverage essential for risk management strategies.
  • Data Mining: The process of using sophisticated data analysis tools to discover patterns and relationships in large datasets. In insurance, data mining can help identify fraud, segment customers, predict policy renewals, and optimize pricing models.
  • Decentralized Applications (DApps): Applications that run on a blockchain or peer-to-peer network of computers rather than a single computer, offering a higher level of transparency and security. In insurtech, DApps could be used for claims processing, insurance policy management, or to facilitate transparent and secure transactions.
  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Insurance: Insurance products that protect against the risks associated with decentralized finance platforms and products, such as smart contract vulnerabilities, exchange hacks, and asset volatility. As DeFi becomes more integrated with traditional finance, DeFi insurance offers a way for participants to mitigate potential losses.
  • Deductible: The amount that the insured must pay out-of-pocket before the insurance company pays a claim. Deductibles are common in many types of insurance policies, including auto, health, and homeowners insurance. They serve as a way to share risk between the insurer and the insured.
  • Digital Assets Insurance: Insurance coverage designed to protect digital assets, such as websites, digital content, and customer data. With the rise of e-commerce and digital business operations, insuring digital assets against hacking, data breaches, and other cyber threats has become increasingly important.
  • Digital Twin Technology: A digital twin is a virtual replica of a physical object, process, or system. In insurance, digital twin technology can simulate real-world items or scenarios, allowing insurers to analyze assets, predict outcomes, or assess risks accurately. This technology is particularly useful in understanding complex systems or environments, like manufacturing processes or smart buildings, for underwriting and risk management.
  • Digital Underwriting: The use of digital technologies to assess risk and determine the pricing of insurance policies. Digital underwriting leverages data analytics, AI, and machine learning to streamline the underwriting process, making it faster and more accurate.
  • Direct Compensation: A feature in some auto insurance policies where an insurer pays for damages and loss regardless of who is at fault in an accident. This simplifies the claims process and ensures quick compensation for policyholders.
  • Direct Writer: An insurance company that sells policies directly to the insured, rather than through independent agents or brokers. Direct writers often use online platforms and digital marketing to engage customers, reflecting the growing trend of digital customer engagement in the insurtech sector.
  • Disability Insurance: A type of insurance that provides income to individuals who are unable to work because of a disability. This insurance helps protect insured individuals from financial hardship in the event of a long-term illness or injury.
  • Drones in Insurance: The use of drones to assess property damage, conduct inspections, and gather data for insurance purposes. Drones can quickly and safely access areas that are difficult or dangerous for human inspectors to reach, improving the efficiency and accuracy of claims processing and risk assessment.
  • Duty to Defend: An obligation in many liability insurance policies where the insurer must provide legal defense to the insured if they are sued under circumstances that could potentially be covered by the policy. This is an important aspect of liability insurance, offering significant protection to policyholders.
  • Dynamic Pricing: The practice of adjusting prices in real-time based on data analysis and demand. In insurtech, dynamic pricing models allow insurers to tailor premiums more closely to the risk profile of individual policyholders or to changing market conditions, enhancing competitiveness and customer satisfaction.


  • E-insurance: The sale and management of insurance policies through digital platforms. E-insurance offers policyholders the convenience of managing their insurance needs online, including purchasing policies, filing claims, and accessing policy information. It reflects the broader digital transformation in the insurance industry.
  • e-Policy: Digital versions of insurance policies that can be accessed and managed online. e-Policies offer a convenient and eco-friendly alternative to traditional paper documents, simplifying policy management for both insurers and policyholders.
  • Economic Loss: A type of loss quantified in financial terms that is not directly associated with physical damage but results from a covered event. Economic losses can include lost income, additional living expenses, or business interruption losses.
  • Efficient Frontier in Insurance: A concept borrowed from finance, representing the optimal portfolio of policies for an insurer that maximizes return (premiums) for a given level of risk (claims), or minimizes risk for a given level of return. Advanced analytics and AI are increasingly used to identify the efficient frontier in insurance portfolios.
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): A system for exchanging business documents and information in a standardized electronic format between parties. In insurance, EDI can facilitate the efficient transmission of data related to claims processing, policy administration, and other transactions.
  • Embedded Analytics in Insurance: The integration of analytical capabilities and data visualizations within insurance software applications. Embedded analytics allow insurers and policyholders to gain insights directly within their operational systems, improving decision-making and enhancing the user experience.
  • Embedded Insurance: A model where insurance coverage is integrated into the purchase of a product or service. For example, offering travel insurance at the point of booking a trip. Embedded insurance is gaining popularity as a convenient way for consumers to purchase coverage tailored to specific transactions or activities.
  • Endorsement: A document attached to an insurance policy that modifies the terms and conditions of the policy, including coverage limits and exclusions. Endorsements allow for customization of an insurance policy to fit specific needs.
  • Enterprise Risk Management (ERM): A holistic approach to identifying, assessing, and managing the risks that an organization faces. ERM encompasses all types of risks—financial, operational, strategic, and others—and seeks to manage the combined impact of these risks on an organization. In the context of insurtech, ERM may involve the use of advanced analytics and AI to predict and mitigate risks across the enterprise.
  • Environmental Liability Insurance: Coverage that protects businesses from liability for damages caused by the release of pollutants into the environment. This type of insurance is critical for industries where there is a significant risk of environmental contamination.
  • Ethical Hacking in Insurance: The practice of employing cybersecurity experts to conduct planned attacks on an insurance company's network to identify vulnerabilities. Ethical hacking helps insurers strengthen their defenses against potential cyber threats and protect sensitive customer data.
  • Event-Driven Architecture (EDA): A software architecture paradigm that allows the production, detection, and consumption of events to trigger actions within a system. In insurtech, EDA can enable real-time processing of claims, policy updates, and customer interactions, improving responsiveness and customer service.
  • Excess Insurance: A policy that provides additional coverage beyond the limits of an underlying policy. Excess insurance kicks in only after the primary policy's coverage limit has been reached, offering protection against particularly large claims.
  • Exclusion: A provision within an insurance policy that eliminates coverage for certain risks, perils, or conditions. Exclusions are used to limit an insurer's risk of unforeseen or uncontrollable losses.
  • Expense Ratio: A measure of an insurance company's operational efficiency, calculated as the company's underwriting expenses divided by its net premiums written. It reflects the proportion of premium revenue consumed by administrative, underwriting, and selling expenses.
  • Experience Rating: A method of determining insurance premiums based on the insured's historical loss experience. Experience rating allows insurers to adjust premiums based on the actual risk presented by a policyholder, rewarding those with fewer or less severe claims with lower rates.


  • Facultative Reinsurance: A type of reinsurance in which the reinsurer evaluates and decides to accept or reject individual risks presented by an insurance company, rather than agreeing to cover all risks of a certain type. This allows reinsurers to assess each risk individually, providing flexibility in the management of reinsurance portfolios.
  • Fiduciary Liability Insurance: Insurance that protects individuals acting in a fiduciary capacity against legal liability arising from claims of mismanagement of a company's employee benefit plans. It's crucial for those who manage pension funds, health plans, and other employee benefits.
  • Financial Guaranty Insurance: A type of insurance that guarantees the payment of interest and principal on bonds or other debt instruments in the case of default. It's often used by municipalities and other public entities to lower the cost of borrowing.
  • Financial Risk Management: The practice of protecting economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit risk and market risk. In the context of insurance, financial risk management involves strategies to mitigate potential financial losses through various risk transfer mechanisms, including insurance policies, hedging, and diversification.
  • Financial Technology (FinTech): Refers to the integration of technology into offerings by financial services companies to improve their use and delivery to consumers. It includes a broad range of applications in insurance (insurtech), investment, banking, and personal finance. FinTech innovations aim to make financial services more accessible, efficient, and secure.
  • Fintech Partnerships: Collaborations between traditional insurance companies and financial technology startups to enhance, innovate, and streamline insurance services and products. These partnerships often aim to leverage technology to improve customer experiences, operational efficiency, and product offerings.
  • First-Party Coverage: Insurance coverage that compensates the policyholder directly for losses or damages incurred. This is in contrast to third-party coverage, which provides protection against claims made by others. First-party coverage is common in property and casualty insurance, including auto and homeowners policies.
  • Fleet Insurance: A type of commercial insurance that covers a group of vehicles owned or leased by a business. Fleet insurance is often more cost-effective and convenient than insuring each vehicle individually, providing coverage for all vehicles under a single policy.
  • Flexible Premium Policy: An insurance policy that allows the policyholder to adjust the amount and frequency of premium payments. Flexible premium policies offer greater payment flexibility, catering to the changing financial circumstances of policyholders.
  • Force Majeure: A clause in insurance contracts that frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties, such as a war, strike, riot, crime, or an event described by the legal term act of God (hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, etc.), prevents one or both parties from fulfilling their obligations under the contract.
  • Fraud Analytics: The application of analytics tools and techniques to identify, prevent, and investigate fraud within the insurance sector. Fraud analytics involves analyzing vast amounts of data to detect patterns, anomalies, and behaviors indicative of fraudulent activities, thereby helping insurers minimize losses and enhance the integrity of the claims process.
  • Fraud Detection and Prevention: The use of analytics, machine learning, and other technological tools to identify and prevent fraudulent activities in insurance claims and applications. Insurtech companies are at the forefront of developing advanced solutions to combat insurance fraud, enhancing the industry's ability to protect against financial losses.
  • Fronting: A situation in insurance where a primary insurer underwrites a policy to then pass the entire risk to a reinsurer. Fronting is often used when the reinsurer is not licensed to operate in a particular jurisdiction. It allows for risk distribution and regulatory compliance.
  • Full Underwriting: The process of assessing and evaluating the full risk of insuring a potential policyholder before issuing a policy. Full underwriting involves a comprehensive review of the applicant's health, lifestyle, financial status, and other relevant factors. It's common in life insurance and certain health policies.
  • Fully Automated Underwriting: The use of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and other automated processes to complete the underwriting process without human intervention. This approach to underwriting can significantly speed up policy issuance, reduce costs, and improve accuracy by eliminating manual errors. It represents a key area of innovation in insurtech, where technology is used to streamline and enhance traditional insurance processes.
  • Functional Programming in Insurtech: A programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data. In insurtech, functional programming can enhance the development of complex, highly reliable software systems for underwriting, claims processing, and risk management, promoting code safety, modularity, and concurrency.


  • Gap Insurance: An optional, add-on car insurance coverage that helps pay off your auto loan if your car is totaled or stolen and you owe more than the car's depreciated value. Gap insurance is particularly relevant for new car buyers or those who lease vehicles.
  • General Liability Insurance: Insurance that provides protection to businesses for bodily injury, personal injury, and property damage caused by the business’s operations, products, or injuries that occur on the business premises. It's a foundational coverage for businesses, protecting against various risks and liabilities.
  • Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): In the context of insurance, particularly health insurance, GINA prohibits insurers from discriminating against individuals based on their genetic information when issuing coverage or setting premiums. This act is crucial for protecting consumers from potential biases based on genetic predispositions to certain health conditions.
  • Geospatial Analysis in Insurance: The use of geographic data and analysis techniques to evaluate risks and exposures associated with specific geographical locations. In insurance, geospatial analysis can inform underwriting decisions, risk assessment for natural disasters, and claims management, providing insights into the geographical distribution of risks.
  • Geospatial Analytics in Insurance: The use of geographical data and analysis techniques to assess risks and make decisions in the insurance industry. Geospatial analytics can help insurers with property valuation, risk assessment for natural disasters, and in setting premiums for property and casualty insurance.
  • Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance (GRC): An integrated approach that ensures an organization is managed in accordance with established regulations and standards, risks are identified and managed proactively, and organizational policies and procedures are followed. In insurtech, GRC technologies help insurers maintain compliance with industry regulations, manage risks effectively, and ensure organizational policies are up to date and adhered to.
  • Green Insurance: Insurance products that offer incentives for environmentally friendly practices and the use of sustainable resources. Green insurance policies may cover eco-friendly buildings, renewable energy installations, and green vehicles, promoting environmental sustainability through insurance solutions.
  • Gross Written Premium (GWP): The total premium revenue generated by an insurer before deductions for reinsurance and ceding commissions. GWP is a key indicator of an insurance company's size and growth rate, representing the total amount charged for policies issued during a specific period.
  • Group Insurance: A single insurance policy that covers a group of people, typically employees of a company or members of an organization, offering them insurance coverage under a single master policy. Group insurance policies are common for health, life, and disability insurance, often provided as part of employee benefit packages.
  • Group Life Insurance: A type of life insurance in which a single contract covers an entire group of people. The policyowner is the employer or an entity such as a labor organization, and the policy covers the employees or members of the group. Group life insurance is often provided as part of a complete employee benefit package.
  • Guaranteed Issue: A feature of certain insurance policies where the insurer is required to offer coverage to applicants regardless of their health status, age, or other factors that might typically present a higher risk. This term is often associated with life and health insurance.
  • Guaranteed Issue Life Insurance: A type of life insurance that does not require a medical exam or health questionnaire for coverage. It's often available to older adults or individuals with health conditions that would otherwise disqualify them from traditional life insurance policies. Premiums are generally higher due to the increased risk to the insurer.
  • Guaranteed Replacement Cost: Coverage in a homeowners insurance policy that pays for the cost to rebuild or repair a home to its original condition without regard to the policy's limits or the depreciation of the home's value. This ensures that the homeowner can restore their property fully in case of a total loss, even if construction costs exceed the policy's coverage amount.


  • Hacker Insurance: A type of cyber liability insurance specifically designed to protect businesses from losses due to hacking activities, including data breaches, cyber theft, and other cybercrimes.
  • Hazard: A condition that increases the likelihood of a loss occurring, which can be physical (natural conditions), moral (dishonesty), or morale (carelessness).
  • Health Insurance: Coverage that pays for medical and surgical expenses incurred by the insured. It can either reimburse the insured for expenses incurred from illness or injury, or pay the care provider directly.
  • Health Savings Account (HSA): A tax-advantaged account available to individuals enrolled in high-deductible health plans, used to pay for eligible medical expenses, contributing to healthcare affordability and planning.
  • High-Net-Worth Insurance: Specialized insurance products designed for high-net-worth individuals, covering luxury items and offering higher coverage limits and broader protections.
  • Holistic Risk Assessment: An approach to evaluating risks that considers a wide range of factors, including traditional actuarial data, cybersecurity threats, and emerging trends, to provide a comprehensive view of potential risks to the insurer and insured.
  • Homeowners Insurance: Property insurance that covers losses and damages to an individual's house and assets in the home, along with liability coverage against accidents in the home or on the property.
  • Host Liquor Liability: Liability coverage for businesses that serve alcohol at company events without selling it, protecting against potential claims arising from alcohol-related incidents.
  • Hull Insurance: Coverage for physical damage to the hull of a ship or the fuselage of an aircraft, typically purchased by shipowners or in aviation to protect against potential losses.
  • Human-Centric AI in Insurance: AI applications focused on enhancing customer service and personalizing insurance products, emphasizing user experience, ethical AI use, and transparency in customer interactions.
  • Hurricane Deductible: A specific deductible in a homeowners insurance policy that applies only to damage from hurricanes, common in hurricane-prone areas, to mitigate insurer risk.
  • Hybrid Life Insurance: A life insurance policy offering a combination of term life coverage with a long-term care component, providing flexibility and comprehensive coverage for policyholders.
  • Hyperautomation in Insurance: The use of AI, machine learning, and robotic process automation to significantly enhance the automation of processes, improving efficiency, accuracy, and reducing costs across various insurance operations, including underwriting and claims processing.


  • Identity Theft Insurance: A type of insurance coverage designed to cover the costs associated with recovering from identity theft, including legal fees, lost wages, and other expenses. Identity theft insurance may also include monitoring services to alert individuals to potential misuse of their personal information.
  • Indemnity: A fundamental insurance principle where the insurer agrees to compensate the insured for loss or damage, restoring them to their financial position prior to the event. Indemnity ensures that policyholders receive compensation for their losses, without profiting from the insurance claim.
  • Inland Marine Insurance: A type of insurance that covers property in transit over land, as well as certain types of moveable property, instrumentalities of transportation and communication (like bridges and roads), and legal liability exposures of bailees. Despite its name, inland marine insurance is used to cover goods transported on land or stored off-site, not marine or ocean transport.
  • Insurable Interest: A requirement that a person seeking to take out an insurance policy must have a financial or other type of interest in the insured item or person that would result in a financial loss if the insured event occurs. Insurable interest must exist at the time of the insurance contract's inception and, in some cases, at the time of the claim.
  • Insurance Analytics: The use of data analysis techniques and tools in the insurance industry to make better decisions regarding risk assessment, pricing, marketing, and claims management. Insurance analytics leverages big data, AI, and machine learning to analyze patterns, predict outcomes, and improve operational efficiencies, offering personalized policies and enhancing risk management.
  • Insurance Claim: A formal request by a policyholder to an insurance company for coverage or compensation for a covered loss or policy event. The insurance company validates the claim and, once approved, issues payment to the insured or an approved interested party on behalf of the insured.
  • Insurance Premium: The amount of money charged by a company for active coverage. The premium is typically paid on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, depending on the policy terms. Premiums are calculated based on risk factors, including the insured's age, health, property value, and the type of coverage sought.
  • Insurance Tech Stack: The collection of technology tools and platforms used by an insurance company to manage and deliver its services. This can include customer relationship management (CRM) systems, policy management systems, claims processing software, data analytics platforms, and digital engagement tools. An optimized tech stack is crucial for insurtechs and traditional insurers aiming to improve efficiency and customer service.
  • Insurance Underwriting: The process by which insurers evaluate the risk of insuring a home, car, driver, or individual's health or life, and determine the premium that should be charged for coverage. Underwriting involves assessing the risk associated with an applicant, implementing underwriting policies, and determining appropriate premiums to charge for assuming those risks.
  • Insurtech: A blend of "insurance" and "technology," referring to the use of technological innovations designed to squeeze out savings and efficiency from the current insurance industry model. Insurtech is aimed at disrupting and transforming the insurance industry with new technologies like AI, big data analytics, IoT, and blockchain to enhance customer experience, streamline operations, and personalize insurance products.
  • Insurtech Ecosystem: The network of insurtech startups, insurance companies, technology providers, investors, and other stakeholders involved in the development, support, and adoption of innovative insurance technologies. The ecosystem fosters collaboration and innovation, driving the transformation of traditional insurance practices through digital technology.
  • Intelligent Claims Processing: The automation and enhancement of the claims handling process using artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and data analytics. Intelligent claims processing can improve the speed and accuracy of claims settlements, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction by providing personalized and efficient service.
  • Interactive Policy Management: The use of online platforms and mobile applications that allow policyholders to manage their insurance policies interactively. This includes viewing policy details, filing claims, updating personal information, and making payments. Interactive policy management enhances customer engagement and satisfaction by providing convenient, on-demand access to insurance services.
  • Internet of Things (IoT) in Insurance: The network of physical objects embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. In insurance, IoT devices can monitor health, property, and vehicles to assess risks more accurately, prevent losses, and tailor policies to individual needs.
  • Investment Income: The income generated by an insurance company's investment portfolio. Insurance companies invest premiums paid by policyholders into various types of assets, and the return on these investments constitutes a significant portion of an insurer's income, helping to keep premiums more affordable and covering operating expenses.
  • IoT-Enabled Risk Mitigation: The application of Internet of Things (IoT) technology to actively monitor and mitigate risks associated with insured assets or behaviors. This can include the use of connected devices to prevent home fires, theft, or water damage, as well as wearable technology to monitor health indicators. IoT-enabled risk mitigation helps in reducing the likelihood of claims and can lead to lower insurance premiums for policyholders.


  • Joint Insurance: A policy designed to cover two or more parties and can pay out in the event of a claim by any of the insured parties. Joint insurance is often used in life insurance to cover spouses, where the policy may pay out on the first death, providing financial support to the surviving partner.
  • Junk Insurance: A term referring to insurance policies considered to offer little to no value to the customer, often because the chance of a claim being accepted is low or the coverage is unnecessary. Junk insurance is frequently highlighted in discussions about consumer protection in the insurance industry.
  • Jurisdictional Risk: Refers to the risk associated with operating in different legal jurisdictions, each with its own regulations, laws, and compliance requirements. For insurers and insurtech companies, understanding and managing jurisdictional risk is crucial to global operations, as it affects how policies are written, claims are handled, and data is managed across borders.
  • Just-In-Time Insurance: A concept in insurtech where coverage is offered on an as-needed basis, allowing policyholders to activate and deactivate insurance protection in real-time via a digital platform. This model uses technology to provide flexible, usage-based coverage options, catering to the modern consumer's preference for convenience and customization.


  • Key Person Insurance: A life insurance policy that a company purchases on the life of a key employee, executive, or owner. The company is the beneficiary and pays the premium. This type of insurance is critical for the company's operation and financial stability, compensating for the economic loss incurred with the death or incapacity of a key individual within the organization.
  • Kidnap and Ransom Insurance (K&R): Insurance designed to protect individuals and corporations operating in high-risk areas around the world. Coverage typically includes ransom payment, loss of income, and other expenses associated with a kidnapping. This policy is particularly relevant for multinational corporations and individuals traveling or working in regions with high incidences of kidnapping.
  • Knock-for-Knock Agreement: An arrangement often found in automobile insurance, where insurers agree to cover the losses of their own policyholders regardless of who is at fault in the accident, thereby avoiding legal costs and lengthy claims processes. This agreement is common in jurisdictions where liability may not be easily determined.
  • Knowledge Management in Insurance: The process of creating, sharing, using, and managing the knowledge and information of an insurance organization. It includes leveraging data analytics, AI, and machine learning to analyze patterns, predict outcomes, improve decision-making, and enhance operational efficiencies. Effective knowledge management is crucial for developing innovative insurance products and services.


  • Lapse: The termination of an insurance policy due to failure to pay the required renewal premium. A policy lapses when the policyholder does not pay the premium amount even within the grace period.
  • Lead Scoring in Insurtech: The use of data analytics and AI to evaluate potential customers (leads) based on their likelihood to purchase insurance policies. This approach allows insurers to prioritize sales efforts on high-quality leads, improving conversion rates and marketing efficiency. Lead scoring models in insurtech consider various data points, including online behavior, demographic information, and personal finance data.
  • Legacy Systems Modernization: The process of updating or replacing old, outdated IT systems and software in insurance companies with modern technologies. Modernization efforts aim to improve operational efficiency, data processing capabilities, and customer service, enabling insurers to better compete in the digital age. Challenges include data migration, integration with new technologies, and maintaining business continuity during the transition.
  • Lemonade Model: Refers to the business model of Lemonade Insurance Company, which utilizes AI and behavioral economics to disrupt traditional insurance models. The company offers homeowners, renters, and pet health insurance, emphasizing transparency, instant claim processing through AI, and donating excess premiums to charities chosen by policyholders, reflecting a shift towards digital-first, customer-centric insurance services.
  • Liability Insurance: Insurance that provides protection against claims resulting from injuries and damage to people and/or property. Liability insurance covers legal costs and payouts for which the insured party would be found liable, up to the limit of the policy.
  • Life Insurance: A contract between an insurance policyholder and an insurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person. It is designed to provide financial protection to surviving dependents or other beneficiaries.
  • Lloyd's of London: A British insurance and reinsurance market where members join together as syndicates to insure and spread risks. Known for insuring specialized market segments, such as marine, aviation, and catastrophic events. Lloyd's is recognized for its innovative approach to insurance, backing unusual and complex risks.
  • Location Intelligence: The use of geographical data in the analysis of insurance risks, claims, and policy pricing. Location intelligence technology leverages GPS data, satellite imagery, and GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to assess risks associated with specific geographic areas, such as natural disasters, crime rates, and property values. It's crucial for underwriting, risk assessment, and claims management in the insurance sector.
  • Loss Adjustment Expenses (LAE): Expenses that are directly associated with the settlement of claims, including investigation and adjustment expenses. LAE is divided into two categories: allocated loss adjustment expenses (ALAE), which are assignable to specific claims, and unallocated loss adjustment expenses (ULAE), which are not.
  • Loss Ratio: A ratio used in the insurance industry to measure the comparison between losses paid out in claims plus adjustment expenses and the premiums earned. It is an indicator of the financial health of an insurance company, with a lower ratio signifying more profitability.


  • Machine Learning: A form of AI that enables software applications to become more accurate in predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed. In the insurance industry, machine learning is used for risk assessment, fraud detection, customer service automation, and personalizing insurance offerings.
  • Machine-to-Machine (M2M) in Insurance: Refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless. In insurance, M2M technology can facilitate real-time data collection for risk assessment, policy customization, and claims processing, enhancing efficiency and accuracy in underwriting and claims management.
  • Managed Care Plan: A type of health insurance plan that contracts with medical providers and healthcare facilities to provide care for members at reduced costs. These plans typically emphasize prevention and wellness and require policyholders to select healthcare providers within a defined network.
  • Marine Insurance: A class of insurance policy that covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport by which property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and the final destination. Marine insurance is crucial for shipping and logistics companies to protect against potential losses while goods are in transit.
  • Market Value Adjustment (MVA): An adjustment in the cash value or death benefit of a life insurance policy based on changes in the market rate of interest, affecting withdrawals or policy loans. MVAs are designed to protect the insurance company from economic losses in a fluctuating interest rate environment.
  • Microinsurance: An area of insurance intended to provide protection to low-income individuals and families, offering specific coverage for affordable premiums. Microinsurance covers health, property, and life, and is designed to be accessible to those in developing countries or with limited financial resources.
  • Mobile Telematics: The use of mobile devices to monitor and collect data on driving behavior, such as speed, acceleration, and braking patterns. In auto insurance, mobile telematics data can be used to assess risk, customize premiums, and encourage safer driving habits through usage-based insurance (UBI) policies.
  • Motor Insurance: Also known as auto or car insurance, it provides financial protection against physical damage or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions, and against liability that could also arise. Motor insurance may also offer financial protection against theft of the vehicle and damage to the vehicle sustained from events other than traffic collisions.
  • Multichannel Engagement: The practice of interacting with customers across multiple platforms and channels, including online, mobile, email, and face-to-face. In insurance, multichannel engagement strategies aim to enhance customer experience, providing policyholders with seamless service and support regardless of how they choose to interact with their insurer.
  • Mutual Insurance Company: An insurance company owned entirely by its policyholders. Any profits earned by a mutual insurance company are either retained within the company or rebated to policyholders in the form of dividend distributions or reduced future premiums.


  • Named Peril Policy: An insurance policy that only covers the risks that are explicitly listed in the policy documents. It contrasts with an all-risk policy that covers all perils except those specifically excluded. Named peril policies are typically found in property insurance.
  • Natural Catastrophe Insurance: A type of insurance designed to protect against losses from natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and wildfires. This insurance is crucial for individuals and businesses in areas prone to such events, helping to mitigate financial losses.
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Insurance: A branch of AI that enables the understanding, interpretation, and production of human language by software. In insurance, NLP is used to automate customer service through chatbots, analyze claims documents, and extract insights from unstructured data, enhancing efficiency and improving customer experience.
  • Navigational Limits: Terms within marine or aviation insurance policies that define the geographical area within which the insured asset, such as a ship or aircraft, is covered. Operating outside these limits may void the insurance coverage.
  • Net Premium: The portion of the insurance premium that is designated for covering losses and benefits, excluding administrative costs and other expenses. The net premium calculation is based on statistical data and risk assessment models.
  • Net Written Premium (NWP): The amount of premium left after an insurance company pays for reinsurance. NWP represents the total premiums that the insurer expects to potentially earn and have at risk. It's a crucial measure for understanding an insurer's underwriting profitability.
  • Network Security Liability Insurance: A component of cyber liability insurance that provides coverage for claims arising from unauthorized access or hacking into the insured's computer systems, resulting in data breaches, theft of digital assets, or transmission of malicious software.
  • Neural Networks in Insurance: A type of machine learning model inspired by the human brain's architecture, used extensively in predictive modeling for risk assessment, fraud detection, and customer segmentation in insurance. Neural networks analyze vast amounts of data to identify patterns and make decisions, contributing to more accurate underwriting and personalized insurance products.
  • No-Claim Bonus (NCB): A discount offered by insurance companies to policyholders who do not make any claims during the policy term. The NCB can significantly reduce the premium upon policy renewal, incentivizing safe practices and loss prevention among insureds.
  • No-Fault Insurance: A type of auto insurance policy where policyholders are compensated by their own insurance company, regardless of who is at fault in an accident. No-fault insurance aims to speed up the claims process and reduce legal disputes over blame. However, it is not available in all jurisdictions.
  • Non-Admitted Insurance: Insurance provided by insurers that are not licensed in the jurisdiction where the risk is located. Non-admitted insurance is often used for risks that are difficult to insure in the standard market. Buyers of non-admitted insurance must often go through a broker who is licensed to conduct business with non-admitted insurers.


  • Omnichannel: A multichannel sales approach that provides the customer with an integrated shopping experience. In insurance, omnichannel engagement allows customers to interact with insurers across various platforms (e.g., mobile, online, in-person) seamlessly, enhancing customer service and satisfaction.
  • On-Demand Insurance: Insurance products that can be purchased and activated instantly, often through a mobile app or online platform, and provide coverage for a specific period or for specific events. On-demand insurance offers flexibility and is tailored to the modern consumer's needs for immediate, customizable protection.
  • Online Policy Management: The use of digital tools and platforms by insurers to allow policyholders to manage their insurance policies online. This includes viewing policy details, making payments, updating personal information, and filing claims, enhancing convenience and efficiency for both the insurer and the insured.
  • Open Banking in Insurance: The use of open APIs that enable third-party developers to build applications and services around the financial institution, promoting greater financial transparency and innovation. In insurance, open banking can facilitate more accurate risk assessments, personalized insurance products, and seamless payment experiences for policyholders.
  • Open Perils Policy: An insurance policy that covers all risks of loss that are not specifically excluded. Also known as an "all risks" policy, it provides broad coverage, contrasting with a "named perils" policy that only covers listed risks. Open perils policies are common in property insurance, offering comprehensive protection against a wide range of potential damages.
  • Operational Risk Insurance: Insurance that covers losses resulting from failed internal processes, people, systems, or external events. This type of insurance is critical for businesses looking to mitigate losses from operational failures, including technology breakdowns, employee errors, and process inefficiencies.
  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in Insurance: The technology used to convert different types of documents, such as scanned paper documents, PDF files, or images captured by a digital camera, into editable and searchable data. In insurance, OCR can streamline the processing of claims and underwriting documents, improving operational efficiency and reducing manual entry errors.
  • Out-of-Pocket Maximum: A cap on the total amount a policyholder is required to pay for covered services in a given period, typically a year. In health insurance, once the out-of-pocket maximum is reached, the insurer pays 100% of covered expenses for the remainder of the policy term.
  • Overinsurance: A situation where the value of an insurance policy exceeds the actual value of the insured asset or risk. Overinsurance can result in unnecessarily high premiums for the policyholder and is generally avoided in policy design and underwriting.


  • Parametric Insurance: A type of insurance that agrees to make a payment upon the occurrence of a triggering event, measured by a parameter that exceeds a predefined value. It is often used for natural disaster insurance, where payouts are triggered by metrics like wind speed or earthquake magnitude, rather than traditional claims processes.
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Insurance: A model of insurance where a group of individuals pool their premiums together to insure against a risk. P2P insurance aims to reduce costs and increase transparency for policyholders, often leveraging technology platforms for management and operations.
  • Personal Lines Insurance: Insurance policies designed for individuals or families, as opposed to businesses. Common types of personal lines insurance include auto insurance, homeowners insurance, and life insurance.
  • Personalized Insurance: Insurance products tailored to the individual risk profile and preferences of the insured, often using data analytics and machine learning to customize policies. Personalized insurance can offer more accurate pricing and coverage that better meets the needs of policyholders.
  • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) in Insurance: A cloud computing model that provides insurance companies with a platform to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing an app. PaaS enables insurers to quickly deploy digital services, experiment with new offerings, and scale operations efficiently.
  • Policy Administration System: A system used by insurance companies to manage policies and related processes, including underwriting, billing, and claims management. Advances in technology have led to more sophisticated systems that integrate AI and data analytics for improved efficiency and customer service.
  • Policyholder: The individual or entity that owns an insurance policy. The policyholder is responsible for paying premiums and will receive compensation or services under the terms of the policy.
  • Predictive Analytics: The use of data, statistical algorithms, and machine learning techniques to identify the likelihood of future outcomes based on historical data. In insurance, predictive analytics is used for risk assessment, fraud detection, customer segmentation, and pricing strategies.
  • Premium: The amount paid for an insurance policy, typically on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis. Premiums are calculated based on the risk profile of the insured and the coverage provided.
  • Premium to Surplus Ratio: A ratio that measures an insurance company's financial leverage by comparing net written premiums to the policyholders' surplus. It indicates the insurer's ability to absorb above-average losses and provides insight into the financial stability and risk exposure of the company.
  • Privacy Liability Insurance: A component of cyber liability insurance that covers costs associated with data breaches, including legal fees, fines, and customer notification expenses. Privacy liability insurance is increasingly important as businesses handle more sensitive customer data and face stringent data protection regulations.
  • Property and Casualty Insurance (P&C): A type of insurance that protects against property losses to a person's home, car, or other possessions, and/or liability insurance for accidents that occur on their property or as a result of their actions.
  • Proportional Reinsurance: A reinsurance agreement in which the reinsurer shares a proportionate part of the premiums and losses of the insurer's portfolio. This type of reinsurance helps insurers spread their risk and provide coverage for larger policies.


  • Qualified Actuary: A professional in the field of actuarial science recognized by a professional actuarial organization or body. Qualified actuaries are experts in assessing financial risks using mathematics, statistics, and financial theory, especially in the insurance and finance industries. They play a critical role in setting premiums, reserves, and in ensuring the financial stability of insurance companies.
  • Quantitative Analysis: The use of mathematical and statistical methods to evaluate financial and risk variables in the insurance and finance sectors. Quantitative analysis in insurance can involve risk assessment, pricing models, and the valuation of complex financial instruments. It's increasingly supported by advanced technologies, including AI and machine learning, to process large datasets and improve predictive modeling.
  • Quick Response (QR) Codes in Insurance: QR codes are increasingly used in the insurance industry to streamline processes such as policy applications, claims filing, and payments. By scanning a QR code with a smartphone, policyholders can access forms, submit information, and even make payments quickly and securely. This technology enhances digital customer engagement by simplifying interactions and improving the user experience.
  • Quota Share Reinsurance: A type of reinsurance agreement in which the insurer and reinsurer share premiums and losses in a fixed proportion. Quota share reinsurance provides insurers with a mechanism to manage their risk exposure while allowing reinsurers to participate in the premiums and losses of a portfolio of policies. It's often used to stabilize the financial performance of insurance companies.
  • Quote: An estimate of the premium for a specific insurance policy based on information provided by the applicant. An insurance quote is not an offer of insurance but rather an estimate of what the policy will cost based on factors such as age, health, the value of the insured item, and the level of coverage requested.


  • Rate Making: The process of determining insurance premiums based on risk assessment and statistical data. Rate making involves analyzing historical data and trends to set prices that are sufficient to cover projected claims, expenses, and profit margins.
  • Real-Time Data Processing: The immediate processing of data as it becomes available. In insurance, real-time data processing can enable dynamic pricing models, instant policy adjustments based on new information, and quicker claims settlements, enhancing customer satisfaction and operational efficiency.
  • Regulatory Technology (RegTech): The use of technology to facilitate the delivery of regulatory requirements more efficiently and effectively than existing capabilities. In insurance, RegTech solutions help companies comply with data protection laws, anti-money laundering (AML) regulations, and other legal requirements through automation and data analytics.
  • Reinsurance: Insurance purchased by an insurance company from another insurer to mitigate risk exposure. Reinsurance allows insurance companies to remain solvent by recovering some or all amounts paid to policyholders and spreading risk.
  • Remote Sensing Technology: The use of satellite or aerial imagery to collect information about objects or areas from a distance. In insurance, remote sensing can be used for assessing risks, managing claims, and understanding environmental factors that impact policies, such as in agricultural or natural disaster insurance.
  • Renewable Term Insurance: A term life insurance policy that can be renewed at the end of the term without requiring a medical examination, regardless of the insured's health changes. This feature provides policyholders with continued coverage options, albeit often at increased premiums.
  • Retention Ratio: The percentage of net premiums written compared to gross premiums written, indicating the proportion of premiums retained after reinsurance transactions. A high retention ratio suggests that the insurer relies less on reinsurance and retains more premium risk.
  • Return on Equity (ROE): A measure of a corporation's profitability that reveals how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested. In insurance, a high ROE can indicate efficient use of capital and underwriting success.
  • Rider: An add-on to a standard insurance policy that provides additional benefits or coverage for specific conditions or risks. Riders allow policyholders to customize their insurance coverage to meet specific needs.
  • Risk Assessment Models: Analytical models used to evaluate the probability and impact of risks. In insurance, advanced risk assessment models incorporate AI and machine learning to analyze vast datasets, improving the accuracy of risk evaluations and premium calculations.
  • Risk Management: The process of identifying, assessing, and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings. In insurance, risk management includes practices like underwriting, diversification, and reinsurance to manage and mitigate risks.
  • Risk Pooling: The practice of spreading financial risks evenly among a large number of contributors in the insurance process. Risk pooling allows insurers to reduce the risk of large payouts by ensuring that losses are covered by contributions from all policyholders.
  • Robotic Process Automation (RPA): The use of software robots or 'bots' to automate highly repetitive and routine tasks typically performed by humans. In insurance, RPA can streamline processes like claims processing, data entry, and policy administration, improving efficiency and accuracy.


  • Sensor Technology in Insurance: The use of sensor devices and IoT technology to collect data related to insured assets or risks. In insurtech, sensor technology is applied for real-time monitoring of health, automotive, and property conditions, enabling more accurate risk assessment, preventative measures, and personalized insurance products.
  • Sharing Economy Insurance: Insurance products designed to meet the needs of the sharing economy, where assets and services are shared between individuals, typically through a digital platform. Sharing economy insurance covers various risks for hosts, guests, drivers, and renters, adapting traditional insurance models to the dynamic nature of shared services and assets.
  • Smart Contracts: Self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into lines of code. In insurtech, smart contracts enable automatic policy updates, claims processing, and premium payments without human intervention, increasing efficiency and reducing the potential for disputes.
  • Social Insurance: Public insurance programs that provide protection against economic risks (e.g., unemployment, disability, or old age) and are typically mandated and managed by government agencies. Social insurance programs are funded through taxes or premiums and aim to provide a safety net for individuals.
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) in Insurance: A software distribution model in which applications are hosted by a service provider or vendor and made available to customers over a network, typically the internet. In insurtech, SaaS solutions offer insurers scalable, cloud-based platforms for managing policies, claims, customer relations, and more, reducing the need for extensive IT infrastructure and enabling rapid deployment of new services.
  • Solvency Ratio: A key metric used to measure an insurance company's ability to meet its debt and other obligations. The solvency ratio compares the size of its capital relative to all risks it has taken, which is critical for assessing the financial health of an insurer.
  • Statutory Reserve: A reserve that an insurance company is legally required to maintain as a safeguard for policyholders. The statutory reserve is determined by regulations and is designed to ensure that an insurer can meet its future obligations to its policyholders.
  • Straight Through Processing (STP): A method of processing insurance policies and claims that allows for the entire operation to be completed electronically without manual intervention. STP enhances operational efficiency, reduces processing times, and minimizes errors.
  • Subrogation: The process by which an insurance company, after paying a loss, seeks to recover the amount of the loss from another party who is legally liable. Subrogation helps to keep insurance costs down by ensuring that the responsible party pays for the damage.
  • Sum Insured: The maximum value for a particular year that the insurance company can compensate the insured in the event of a claim. The sum insured is a critical factor in determining premiums and is chosen based on the value of the insured item or risk coverage needs.
  • Supplementary Coverage: Additional coverage options that can be added to a basic insurance policy to provide protection against risks that are not covered under the standard policy. Supplementary coverage allows policyholders to tailor their insurance to their specific needs.
  • Surety Bond: A three-party agreement in which the issuer of the bond (surety) guarantees the performance of the second party (the principal) to the third party (the obligee) to whom a duty is owed. Surety bonds are often used in construction, professional services, and licensing to ensure compliance and protect against losses from non-performance.
  • Synthetic Data in Insurance: Artificially generated data created through algorithms or simulations that mimic the statistical properties of real-world data. In insurance, synthetic data is used for modeling and analysis, particularly in situations where actual data may be limited or sensitive, enabling risk assessment, product development, and fraud detection without compromising individual privacy.


  • Tail Coverage: An extension of liability insurance provided to healthcare providers and other professionals that allows for the reporting of claims after a policy has expired or been canceled, if the act or omission that gives rise to the claim occurred during the effective period of the policy. Tail coverage is particularly important in claims-made policies.
  • Technology Errors and Omissions (Tech E&O) Insurance: A type of insurance that provides coverage to technology companies and professionals against claims of negligence or inadequate work, specifically related to technology services or products. This insurance covers both liability and property loss exposures.
  • Telematics: The integration of telecommunications and informatics for application in vehicles and with control of vehicles on the move. In insurance, telematics is used to monitor driving behavior, such as speed, acceleration, and braking patterns, allowing insurers to offer personalized auto insurance premiums based on actual driving habits.
  • Term Life Insurance: A life insurance policy that provides coverage at a fixed rate of payments for a limited period, the relevant term. After that period expires, coverage at the previous rate of premiums is no longer guaranteed, and the client must either forgo coverage or potentially obtain further coverage with different payments or conditions.
  • Third-Party Administrator (TPA): An organization that processes insurance claims or certain aspects of employee benefit plans for a separate entity. TPAs are often used in the fields of health insurance and workers' compensation.
  • Tokenization: The process of converting sensitive data into unique identification symbols that retain all the essential information about the data without compromising its security. In insurtech, tokenization is used to protect customers' personal and payment information in digital transactions.
  • Total Loss: A situation in insurance claims where the cost of repairing the damage to property (e.g., a vehicle or building) exceeds the value of the property itself, making it uneconomical to repair. In such cases, the insurer typically pays the policyholder the value of the property.
  • Transactional Data: Data generated from transactions between consumers and businesses, such as purchase history, payment information, and policy changes. In insurtech, transactional data is analyzed to understand customer behavior, improve service offerings, and personalize marketing efforts.
  • Transparency in Insurance: The principle of providing clear, accessible, and understandable information about policies, coverage, and the claims process to policyholders. Advances in digital customer engagement platforms have enhanced transparency in the insurance industry, enabling consumers to make more informed decisions about their insurance needs.
  • Travel Insurance: Insurance that is intended to cover medical expenses, trip cancellation, lost luggage, flight accident, and other losses incurred while traveling, either internationally or domestically. Travel insurance can be purchased for a single trip or on a multi-trip basis for frequent travelers.
  • Trust Layer in Blockchain: In the context of blockchain technology within insurtech, the trust layer ensures the integrity and security of transactions and data exchanges across the network. It eliminates the need for a central authority by allowing distributed consensus and providing a transparent, tamper-proof ledger of all transactions. This layer is fundamental for applications like smart contracts and decentralized identity verification, offering new ways to manage and mitigate risk in insurance.


  • Ubiquitous Computing in Insurance: Refers to the embedding of computing capabilities into everyday objects to communicate information. In insurance, this can relate to the Internet of Things (IoT) devices, such as wearable health monitors or connected home security systems, which provide real-time data that insurers can use to assess risk, monitor claims, and offer personalized services. Ubiquitous computing offers new avenues for risk assessment, prevention strategies, and customer engagement in the insurtech ecosystem.
  • Umbrella Insurance: A type of personal liability insurance that covers claims in excess of regular homeowners, auto, or watercraft policy coverage. Umbrella insurance can provide additional coverage for bodily injury, property damage, and in some cases, certain lawsuits not covered by standard policies.
  • Underinsurance: The condition of having inadequate insurance coverage, such that the limits of an insurance policy are insufficient to cover the full costs of a claim. Underinsurance can lead to significant out-of-pocket expenses for the insured in the event of a loss.
  • Underwriter: A person or company that evaluates and assumes another's risk for a fee, such as a premium in the case of an insurance underwriter. In insurtech, underwriters increasingly rely on AI and machine learning models to assist in risk assessment and decision-making.
  • Underwriting: The process by which insurers assess the risk of insuring a home, vehicle, or individual's health or life, and determine the premium that should be charged for coverage. This involves evaluating the likelihood of a claim being made and setting prices accordingly.
  • Underwriting Automation: The use of technology to streamline the underwriting process, reducing the need for manual input and allowing for quicker decision-making. Automation can involve the use of AI, machine learning, and big data analytics to assess applications, improve accuracy, and personalize insurance offerings.
  • Unearned Premium: The portion of a premium that has been collected but not yet earned because the policy period has not yet passed. Unearned premiums are considered liabilities on an insurer's balance sheet because they would need to be returned in the event of cancellation.
  • Uninsurable Risk: A risk that cannot be insured because it falls outside the boundaries of what an insurance company deems acceptable or too predictable to insure. This could be due to the likelihood of a loss being too high, the risk being uninsurable by law, or the potential loss being too large or difficult to quantify.
  • Universal Life Insurance: A type of permanent life insurance that offers flexible premiums, adjustable benefits, and a cash value component that grows over time. Policyholders have the flexibility to adjust their premiums and coverage amounts as their financial needs change.
  • Usage-Based Insurance (UBI): An insurance model that adjusts premiums based on the policyholder's behavior, typically through telematics in vehicles that monitor driving habits such as speed, braking, and time of day. UBI allows for more personalized pricing based on actual risk rather than demographic generalizations.
  • User Experience (UX) in Insurtech: Refers to the overall experience of a person using an insurtech platform or application, especially in terms of how easy and pleasing it is to use. Good UX design is critical in insurtech for engaging customers, simplifying processes, and enhancing digital interactions.


  • Value at Risk (VaR): A statistical technique used to measure the risk of loss on a specific portfolio of financial assets. For insurance companies, VaR can estimate the potential for loss within a certain confidence interval, helping in the assessment of financial risk and the setting of capital reserves to cover potential claims.
  • Variable Life Insurance: A type of permanent life insurance where the cash value and death benefit can vary based on the performance of investments. Policyholders can allocate premiums among a variety of investment options, offering a potential for higher returns, but with greater risk.
  • Vehicle Telematics: The use of telecommunications and informatics within vehicles, including GPS navigation, integrated hands-free cell phones, wireless safety communications, and automatic driving assistance systems. In insurance, vehicle telematics data is used to assess driver behavior, facilitate usage-based insurance models, and improve risk assessment.
  • Venture Capital in Insurtech: Investment funds that are allocated to startups or early-stage companies with high growth potential in the insurtech sector. Venture capital is crucial for insurtech startups looking to innovate and disrupt traditional insurance models with technology-driven solutions.
  • Verification of Coverage (VOC): A document or electronic confirmation from an insurance provider that verifies the existence of an insurance policy. VOC typically includes details about the type of coverage, policy limits, and effective dates, and is often required when claiming insurance benefits or as proof of insurance compliance.
  • Viatical Settlement: An arrangement where a person with a terminal or chronic illness sells their life insurance policy to a third party for a lump sum that is less than the death benefit but more than the cash surrender value. This allows the policyholder to benefit from the policy during their lifetime, typically to cover medical and living expenses.
  • Virtual Insurance Agent: An AI-driven chatbot or virtual assistant designed to simulate a human insurance agent's advice and customer service capabilities. Virtual insurance agents can guide customers through policy selection, answer questions, and assist with claims processing, offering a 24/7 service that enhances customer engagement and operational efficiency.
  • Vulnerability Assessment: The process of identifying, classifying, and prioritizing vulnerabilities in computer systems, applications, and network infrastructures. In the context of insurtech and cyber insurance, vulnerability assessments help in understanding the cyber risks associated with insuring technology-dependent businesses, guiding the development of policies that cover cyber threats and data breaches.


  • Waiver of Premium Rider: An add-on to an insurance policy, particularly life and health insurance, that waives the policyholder's obligation to pay the premiums if they become seriously ill or disabled. This rider ensures that the insured's coverage continues even if they are no longer able to pay premiums due to their health condition.
  • Warranty in Insurance: A statement or guarantee in an insurance policy that certain conditions will be met, relating to the risk being insured. In marine insurance, for example, warranties might require that a ship remains within certain geographical areas. Violation of a warranty can lead to the voiding of the policy. In the context of product warranties and extended warranties, insurance products can also cover the repair or replacement of goods beyond the manufacturer's original warranty.
  • Wearable Technology: Electronic devices worn by individuals that can collect and analyze personal data, including health and fitness information. In insurance, wearables are used to monitor policyholder health metrics, encourage healthy behavior, and determine insurance premiums for life and health insurance policies, promoting a more personalized insurance experience.
  • Weather Derivatives: Financial instruments used by organizations to hedge against the risk of weather-related losses. In the insurance industry, weather derivatives can be used as an alternative or complement to traditional insurance for managing risks associated with adverse weather conditions, such as agriculture insurance protecting against the risk of drought, excessive rainfall, or other weather events that could impact crop yields.
  • Web Aggregator in Insurance: An online platform that gathers and presents information from various insurance sources, allowing users to compare insurance products and prices from different insurers. Web aggregators facilitate consumer research, helping individuals and businesses make informed decisions about insurance purchases by providing a centralized resource for comparison of coverage options, premiums, and policy details.
  • Whole Life Insurance: A type of permanent life insurance policy that provides coverage for the insured's entire lifetime, with a guaranteed death benefit and a savings component that builds cash value. Premiums are typically fixed and can be higher than term life insurance, but whole life policies offer the security of lifelong coverage and the potential for cash value accumulation.
  • Workers' Compensation Insurance: Insurance that provides medical benefits and wage replacement to employees injured in the course of employment. Workers' compensation is a form of social insurance that's mandatory in many jurisdictions, designed to protect employees and employers by eliminating the need for litigation in the event of workplace injuries. It covers medical expenses, rehabilitation costs, and lost wages for injured workers, while providing employers with immunity from most injury lawsuits by employees.
  • Write-Off: The recognition that an asset, including an insured property or vehicle, is a total loss and not worth repairing. In insurance terms, a write-off occurs when the cost of repair exceeds the value of the item or it's irreparably damaged, leading insurers to compensate the policyholder for the item's value instead of funding repairs.


  • Yearly Renewable Term (YRT): A type of term life insurance policy that is renewed annually. YRT policies allow the insured to renew the policy each year without providing evidence of insurability, but premiums may increase with the insured's age. This flexibility is beneficial for those seeking short-term coverage with the option to extend.
  • Yield: In the context of insurance company investments, yield refers to the earnings generated and realized on an investment over a particular period, expressed as a percentage of the investment's cost. Insurance companies invest premiums collected from policyholders in various assets, and the yield on these investments can help offset the costs of claims, contributing to the overall financial health of the company.


  • Zero Trust Architecture in Cyber Insurance: A cybersecurity principle that assumes no entity, either outside or inside the network, should be automatically trusted without verification. In the context of cyber insurance, adopting a zero trust architecture can mitigate the risk of data breaches and cyber-attacks, potentially lowering insurance premiums and reducing the likelihood of claims. This approach emphasizes continuous monitoring and authentication throughout an organization's network.
  • Zero-day Attack: A cyber-attack that occurs on the same day a weakness is discovered in software, before the software developers have had the opportunity to create a patch to fix the vulnerability. In the context of cybersecurity insurance, zero-day attacks are significant because they represent a high risk for which businesses seek coverage, highlighting the importance of proactive and comprehensive cyber risk management strategies.
  • Zip Code Underwriting: The practice of setting insurance premiums and coverage options based on the geographic location of the insured, identified by their zip code. This method considers factors such as crime rates, risk of natural disasters, and economic conditions that can affect the likelihood of claims. While this practice can lead to more accurate pricing for insurers, it also raises concerns about fairness and discrimination in access to insurance.
  • Zoning Laws: Regulations established by local governments regarding the use and development of land within certain areas. Zoning laws can significantly impact property insurance, as they may affect the types of structures that can be built, their uses, and how rebuilding is handled in the event of a claim. Insurers must consider zoning laws when underwriting policies to ensure coverage aligns with legal requirements and the insured's needs.

Quantum Alliance Sees 30% Efficiency Gain with Inaza

Quantum Alliance Sees 30% Efficiency Gain with Inaza

Quantum saw a 30% reduction in non-core tasks in just a few weeks - now their underwriting team can focus on what matters.

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